What is Aeroponic

Aeroponics is the science of plant cultivation without incorporation of the soil or a substrate culture. Where plant grows in the air with the assistance of an artificial support and no soil or substrate is required to support the plant. Basically, it is an air water culture cultivation system, the roots of plant are hanged inside a sealed container under darkness and openly exposed in the air to get water nutrient-rich spray through atomizers. The upper portion of the plant leaves and crown extend above the wet zone. The root and canopy of the plant are separated by the artificially provided structure.

About Aeroponic System

The aeroponic system uses the nutrient-enriched spray in the air with the help of pressure nozzles or foggers to sustain hyper growth under controlled conditions. The air-growing culture reduced the mechanical injuries and interferences with significant growth compared with soil, sand, or even aerated water culture. The discrete nature of atomization spray interval and duration allows for measuring the nutrient uptake concentrations within the plant over time under different conditions. The atomization spray provides the intermittent mist of nutrients to plant root on different periodic intervals for the specific duration rather than a permanent misting.

Why Aeroponic

Aeroponics system is the most efficient plant cultivation system to grow the plant without the interference of soil comparing with other soil less techniques. The nutrient-mist system uses a minimum amount of water and provides an excellent environment for plant growth. The system achieved the performance for saving the water up to 99%, nutrients 50% and 45% less time than soil-based cultivation (NASA 2006).

In aeroponics system plant roots quickly nourish the available nutrients and grows under controlled conditions. The controlled conditions include uniform nutrients concentration, EC and pH values,temperature, humidity, light intensity, atomization frequency, atomization spray time, atomization interval time, and oxygen availability. However, the plant grows speedily in the system due to the sterile environment and abundant oxygen availability in the growth chamber.

Aeroponics is an incredible amount of water as little as compared with other plant growing systems. The system reduces the labor cost, consumes less water usage by 98%, fertilizer usage by 60%, pesticide and herbicides usage by 100% and maximize plant yield by 45% to 75% than either hydroponics or geoponics system (Stoner 1983; NASA 2006).

The nutrient solution could be recycled easily for reuse. The system allows for vertical farming, thus increasing the yield by more space for the plant. The possibilities of multiple harvests of a single perennial crop and accelerated cultivation cycle due to the increased rate of growth and maturation. The mature plant could be removed easily at any time without disturbance another plant. The diseases could not expand quickly because of clean root material free from soil, soilborne organisms and adulteration from foreign plant species contaminants. While in other soil-less system plant diseases could spread through nutrient distribution in growth chamber from plant to plant. The plant receives 100% of the available carbon dioxide and oxygen to the leaves, stems, roots, and accelerating growth with reducing rooting time. The system is not subjected to weather conditions. The plants could be grown and harvest throughout the year without any interference of soil, pesticides, and residue. It is environmentally friendly and economically efficient plant growing system.


More data from the original source: https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2018.1472308

Imran Ali Lakhiar, Jianmin Gao, Tabinda Naz Syed, Farman Ali Chandio & Noman Ali Buttar (2018) Modern plant cultivation technologies in agriculture under controlled environment: a review on aeroponics, Journal of Plant Interactions, 13:1, 338-352, DOI: 10.1080/17429145.2018.1472308

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